Flame retardant finishing of automotive interior materials
The so-called "flame-retardant finishing" means that the finished fabric has the ability to prevent the flame from spreading to varying degrees, and can quickly stop burning after leaving the source of fire. The flame retardant finishing of automotive interior materials is also the material's flame retardant properties.
There are many types of automotive interior materials, which can be roughly divided into four types: fiber textile and leather, plastic, rubber, and composite materials. These materials are flammable or flammable materials. These interior materials are generally distributed in car ceilings, floor mats, door linings, seats, seat belts, luggage compartments, etc. and are in close contact with the human body. In the event of a vehicle fire, the burning of these materials can cause damage to the vehicle itself and the passengers and passengers inside the vehicle. Cars are prone to fires due to short circuits, mechanical failures, and traffic accidents. Therefore, the flame retardant finishing of automotive interior materials has great practical significance for improving automobile safety.
FMVSS571.302 "Combustion characteristics of automotive interior materials" stipulates that the sales speed of interior materials for passenger cars, multi-purpose passenger cars, trucks and buses in the United States cannot exceed 102mm / min or the combustion time of interior materials does not exceed 60s And the length of the burning from the timing point to the stopping point does not exceed 51mm.
The American Society of Mobile Engineers formulated SAEJ369 "Flame Test for Automotive Interior Materials-Horizontal Burning Act" in 1969. This method can be regarded as an industry standard. It specifies the equipment used in the combustion performance test of automotive interior materials, the environment during the test, and the expression of the combustion speed of the interior materials. This standard has been revised several times, and the latest version is SAEJ369-2007.
Among the standards cited in the performance standards of automotive interior materials of some enterprises, two European standards are cited, namely ISO3795 "Determination of the burning performance of agricultural and forestry road vehicles, tractors and extremely interior decorative materials" and DIN75200 "Judgment of Combustion Performance of Locomotive Interior Materials". However, since the 1980s, these two standards have not been revised, and the latest versions are ISO3795-1989 and DIN75200-1980. Both standards are widely used in countries. 1SO3795 is suitable for road passenger vehicles (such as passenger cars, trucks, vans, station wagons, coaches, etc.) as well as tractors and agricultural and forestry machinery; DIN75200 is suitable for cars, trucks, multi-purpose passenger cars and buses. The two standards do not specify the technical indicators required for qualified products. In 1995, the European Union issued the directive 95/28 / EC "Automotive interior materials flame retardant test, fire test", which has a certification system and evaluation standards for the flammability of passenger car interior materials.
Japan established JISD1021 as the standard for the horizontal combustion method of automotive interior materials in 1976. This method was revised three times, and the latest version is JISD1021-1998. The standard JISD1021-1998 is equivalent to adopting ISO3795-1989, and the technical indicators for qualified products are stipulated in the regulation TRIA48 "Experimental Rules for Flame Retardant Properties of Motor Vehicle Interior Materials".
China formulated the standard GB8410-1978 for the flame retardant properties of automotive interior materials in 1987, and revised the standard in 1994 and 2006. The existing GB8410-2006 standard refers to the US FMVSS571.302, which is a national mandate. Sexual standards. The technical requirement of GB8410-2006 for automotive interior materials is "combustion speed is not greater than 100mm / min".
Corresponding to the technical regulations on the combustion performance of automotive interior materials in various countries, car manufacturers have formulated corresponding automotive interior material combustion test enterprise standards, such as the general standard GMW3232-2011, Volkswagen standard TL1010-2008, and Toyota standard TSM0500G-2010. The enterprise standard covers all technical regulations on the combustion performance of automotive interior materials in all countries where the automobile is sold, and is updated frequently.
In recent years, news about the spontaneous combustion, deflagration, and man-made arson of public transport have caused news of casualties, provoking sensitive nerves for the public to travel safely. Regardless of the other reasons behind this phenomenon, if you look at the flame retardant properties of the interior materials of buses, you can know one or two reasons.
Professor Zhou Zhengyi, Secretary General of the China Flame Retardant Association, said that the interior materials of buses in China are poor in flame retardancy, especially that the flame retardancy of plastics and textiles is too low, and it is more likely to cause a large number of casualties after the fire. bad. "At present, the interiors of buses and trams in China, including seats and ceilings, are mostly made of plastic. As a derivative of petroleum, plastics are" born "with flammable properties. Once burned, the fire quickly spreads, and passengers have no Time to escape. "
At present, the flame retardant standard of automotive interior materials, “Combustion Characteristics of Automotive Interior Materials” (GB8410-2006), which is commonly referred to in the field of buses in China, has only one requirement for the flame retardancy of all automotive interior materials, which is under the relevant test conditions. The horizontal burning speed is not more than 100mm / min. The flame retardant properties of automotive interior materials in Europe and the United States not only require horizontal combustion speed, but also multi-dimensional requirements such as vertical combustion speed, smoke density, oxygen index, and smoke toxicity. And as a strict standard, different flame retardant requirements should be put forward for different materials. For example, the horizontal burning speed of 100mm / min can be used as flame retardant requirements for ordinary fabrics, but not for most thermoplastics, because they can meet this condition without any flame retardant treatment.
New car interior flame retardant standards have not been promulgated for a long time, and the popularization of flame retardant materials has not received widespread attention, and other issues have restricted the improvement of bus safety performance. As a necessity of modern life, flame retardant material can effectively suppress the occurrence and spread of fire, especially in places with dense crowds such as public transportation vehicles. Experiments have shown that the flame-retardant products can extend the fire escape time to 10 times, from 2 minutes to 20 minutes, greatly increasing the chance of escape, and also for firefighters to rush to the fire place in time to win time.
It is understood that in the past 10 years, the growth rate of China's flame retardants has remained at 15% to 20%, and the current annual consumption is about 570,000 tons. In terms of proportion, the application of China's flame retardant materials is far below the world average. Level, the gap with developed countries in Europe and the United States is even greater. Take plastics as an example. In 2012, about 10% of the global plastic materials were added with flame retardants. The number in developed countries in Europe and America was 15% to 20%, while China's flame retardant plastics accounted for less than 2% of plastic products. %.
In fact, China produces a large number of plastic products with flame retardants every year. Because the country does not have mandatory standards requiring enterprises to use them, consumers also lack this knowledge. Most of these products are sold to European and American countries. We are still using ordinary plastic products. The hidden dangers have not been paid enough attention.